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信息的传递与链接有关《死亡搁浅》的思考
2020-01-08 01:38  www.fxwindowfilm.com

  恩斯特·卡希尔不是学西方哲学的人估计没有人知道,在他晚年的时候,他写了一本总结性的书籍《人论》。这本书给处于中二期的我提供了一个全新的思考角度。

Ernst Cahill, who is not a scholar of Western philosophy, reckons no one knows that in his later years he wrote a summative book, The Theory of Man. This book provides a new perspective for me in the second phase.

  我在玩到《死亡搁浅》的时候,突然想起了这本书里的一些观点。所以这篇文章从这里出发,深入到冥滩之上,来俯瞰整个生命历程。

As I played Death Stranded, I suddenly remembered some of the ideas in the book. So this article starts from here, goes deep above the Hades beach, overlooks the entire life course.

  在恩斯特·卡希尔论述中,无数的生物学家、人类学家、考古学家和艺术史学家们都想要解释人类的意识究竟是怎么来的,进而了解人到底因何而为人,他总结道:人是符号的动物。这看起来似乎和《死亡搁浅》整个游戏所倡导的“链接”没有什么关系,别着急,让我慢慢给您说清楚。

In Ernst Cahill's argument, countless biologists, anthropologists, archaeologists, and art historians all want to explain how human consciousness came about, and then understand what human beings are for. It doesn't seem to have much to do with the \"link\" advocated by the whole game, so don't worry, let me make it clear to you.

  在《死亡搁浅》中,小岛秀夫不断地在告诉玩家地球曾经发生过的五次物种大灭绝,而死亡搁浅则是第六次物种大灭绝,这次灭绝的主体是我们人类。

In \"the death stranding,\" shima suff is constantly telling players about the five species extinctions that have occurred on earth, and the death stranding is the sixth species extinction, the main body of this extinction is us humans.

  首先是因为人类占据了当下地球上绝大部分生存空间,就和白垩纪的恐龙一样。其次人类的人口达到了一个可怕的数量并且还在不断增长。我们单独看每一次的灭绝其实都会发现一些大概的规律,就是生物庞大的种群数量超过了生态环境所能承载的极限,于是大量的物种灭绝,而少数幸存下来的物种成为了下一次生物种群繁荣的主体。

The first is because humans occupy most of the living space of the earth today, just like the dinosaurs of the Cretaceous. Secondly, the human population has reached a terrible number and is still growing. When we look at each extinction alone, we find some general rule that the large population of organisms exceeds the limit of the ecological environment, so that a large number of species become extinct, and a few of the surviving species become the main body of the next biological population boom.

  我们总是将人和其他动物区别开来进行描述和记录,但是如果我们回看几次物种的兴盛与衰亡其实也可以看到类似的规律。比如奥陶纪的时候是甲壳生物的繁荣,各种生物以坚硬的甲壳作为生存的标杆,而非甲壳的生物则只能沦为食物链的底层。如果那个时候这些有甲壳的生物有能力做记录的话,他们或许会把有甲壳的生物视作高等生物,而没有甲壳的视作低等生物。

We've always distinguished humans from other animals to describe and document, but if we look back at the rise and fall of species several times, we can see similar patterns. In the Ordovician period, for example, crustaceans flourished, with hard crustaceans as a standard of survival, whereas non- crustaceans were reduced to the bottom of the food chain. If these crustaceans were capable of recording at that time, they might have regarded crustaceans as higher creatures, and those without them as lower creatures.

  以此类推,白垩纪的时候,或许会以有角质皮肤的作为高等动物,没有角质皮肤的作为低等动物。到了第四纪灵长类脱颖而出的时候,也发生了同样的事情,只不过是从对于器官的区分变成了对于更为抽象的“意识”的区分。

And so on, in the Cretaceous period, it may be possible to use horny skin as a higher animal, and no horny skin as a lower animal. By the time the Quaternary elders stood out, the same thing had happened, only from the distinction between organs to the more abstract distinction between consciousness.

  这是整个故事的主线,在必将走向灭亡的结局前,山姆带领着人类稍稍挣扎一下,反抗自然界的淘汰和调整。就如同前五次一样,对于自然来说,人类整个物种的兴衰其实对于自然没有任何意义。就像是狗身上的虱子一样,轻轻挠两下痒,对于虱子来说可能就是灭顶之灾,但对于狗来说可能只是下意识的动作。

This is the main line of the whole story, and before it is bound to end, Sam leads the human race to struggle a little against the elimination and adjustment of nature. Like the first five times, the rise and fall of the entire human species has no meaning for nature. Just like a dog's lice, a gentle scratch may be a disaster for the lice, but for the dog it may just be a subconscious action.

  在即将毁灭之时,人类和虱子一样毫无任何意义。我们引以为傲的文明、我们无数的发明创造我们的奋斗与纷争其实从头到尾都是自欺欺人。

At a time of imminent destruction, humans are as meaningless as lice. Our proud civilization, our numerous inventions and creations, our struggles and strifes are in fact self-delusion from beginning to end.

  但是生命不一样,生命是如此顽强,顽强到似乎不是由这个宇宙创造的一样。而这其中最重要的就是信息的传递与链接。

But life is not the same, life is so tenacious, tenacious as if not created by the universe. One of the most important is the transmission of information and links.

  说起信息传递,似乎总会让人脑中响起电信号的声音。但是不要忘了,从生物学意义上来说,基因的遗传也属于是信息传递,只不过传递的信息是通过化学键来实现的。整个生物种群的所有复杂组成都包含在这些核糖核酸与脱氧核糖核酸之中。这些信息不仅可以传递,还可以迭代,还可以复制和突变,而这一切都不以任何事物的主观意识为转移。

When it comes to information transmission, it always seems to make the sound of electrical signals in one's head. But don't forget that in a biological sense, genetic inheritance also belongs to the transmission of information, but the transmission of information is achieved through chemical bonds. All the complex components of the entire population are contained in these RNAs and deoxyribonucleic acids. This information cannot only be transmitted, but also iterative, and can be copied and mutated, and all this is not transferred by the subjective consciousness of anything.

  我们刨除那些作为人类个体的情感与身为人的主观情感来看待生物基因的信息传递,并去除掉时间这一维度。基因的信息传递让亿万年死寂的宇宙绽放出别样的光彩。对于宇宙本身来说,时间和空间没有意义。或许从宇宙爆炸到宇宙坍缩,这个过程就如同我们呼吸一样的自然。我们不会去思考我们每一次呼吸所消耗的氧气所需要的血红蛋白以及传递到身体的各个部分这种及其细节的问题。

We remove those emotions as human individuals and subjective emotions to view the transmission of biological genes, and remove the dimension of time. The transmission of genetic information gives a different luster to the hundreds of millions of years of deadness. For the universe itself, time and space are meaningless. Perhaps from the explosion of the universe to the collapse of the universe, this process is as natural as we breathe. We don't think about the hemoglobin we need for each breath of oxygen and the details of the parts that are delivered to the body.

  在一次爆炸到一次坍缩之间的无数时间之中,在近乎难以计数的由湮灭所产生的物质之中到底产生了什么,对于宇宙来说都没有意义。但是某一个时间点,在银河系边缘的一颗围绕恒星的行星上,由多种化合物组成的化学键突然有了自己的想法。或许不应该用“想法”这么人性化的描述,但是我想表达的是,这些化学键开始从混沌而杂乱的物质世界之中延展出去,跨越出自己所在的时间和空间,于是时间和空间对于生命来说拥有了意义。

In the countless hours between an explosion and a collapse, what is produced in the near-untold mass of annihilation is meaningless to the universe. But at one point in time, on a planet around a star on the edge of the Milky Way, chemical bonds of multiple compounds suddenly have their own ideas. Perhaps not as humanely described as \"ideas \", but what I would like to say is that these chemical bonds begin to extend out of the chaotic and cluttered world of matter, across the time and space where they are, so that time and space have meaning for life.

  首先,他们希望可以从一个水域跨越到另一个水域。于是他们将自己链接在了一起,并尝试向着远方延申,于是就有了最早的单细胞生物。

First, they hope to be able to cross from one water to another. So they linked themselves together and tried to reach far away, so they had the earliest single-cell organisms.

  他们认为这个方向是对的,于是想办法产生更多的个体,能够向更广泛的地区扩散。但扩散需要消耗物质,于是一些生物开始吸收那些游离的无机物,在体内形成有机物,剩下的生物吞食有机物进一步去扩散。随着扩散规模的加剧,生物要适应的环境越来越复杂。适应碱性水体的去不了酸性水体,适应酸性水体的去不了空气之中。就这样,生命的结构越来越复杂,但其始终都有一个使命——将生命的信息传递下去,并传播向更广的方向。

They think this is the right direction, so find ways to produce more individuals and spread to a wider area. But diffusion requires the consumption of matter, so some organisms begin to absorb the free inorganic matter, forming organic matter in the body, and the remaining organisms swallow organic matter for further diffusion. As the scale of diffusion increases, the environment for organisms to adapt to becomes more and more complex. Can't adapt to alkaline water body to acid water body, can't adapt to acid water body to air. In this way, the structure of life is becoming more and more complex, but it has always had a mission to convey the message of life and spread it in a broader direction.

  当然其中也会时有各种错误产生,比如种群之中消费者太多,导致生产者消耗过大而供养不起消费者,比如供养者产能过剩使得少数消费者占据了绝大部分资源等等。这些策略上的失败都不断使得生命在进行自我改进。

There are, of course, errors, such as the number of consumers in the population, the overconsumption of producers and the inability to support consumers, such as the over-capacity of the feeders that make a small number of consumers occupy most of the resources, and so on. The failure of these strategies keeps life improving itself.

  然后出现了一个奇特的路线——人类。这次的策略是不再由身体机能上的演化来实现传播,而是应用一种全新的策略——意识。

Then came a strange route - humans. This time the strategy is no longer to spread by the evolution of the body, but to apply a new strategy, consciousness.

  意识的诞生到目前为止其实依然成谜,目前没有任何一种学科可以真正回答人类的意识是如何诞生的,但是我们可以从其中一种表现来看待这个过程从初级阶段到发展出人类社会。那就是符号。

The birth of consciousness is still a mystery until now, and no subject can really answer how human consciousness is born, but we can view this process from the initial stage to the development of human society from one of its manifestations. That's the symbol.

  人类成为这个世界上的主要群体以后,通过便利的工具,我们重新建立了自己位于食物链的地位,将那些比我们强健的动物都吃入了腹中。当然,这种行为并不比白垩纪的肉食恐龙高明多少,但是在这个过程中,人类并非仅仅将自己固定在一个个生态圈内,而是跨越了山川河流,行走在广袤的大地上,征服高山与海洋,将人类的定居点遍布整个世界。这对于其他动物来说就是不可思议的了——如果那些动物能够知道不可思议这个概念的话。

After humans became the major group in the world, we re-established our position in the food chain by means of convenience, and ate up all the animals that were stronger than we were. Of course, this behavior is not much better than the Cretaceous carnivorous dinosaurs, but in the process, humans did not simply fix themselves in an ecological circle, but across the mountains and rivers, walking on the vast land, conquering the mountains and seas, and spreading human settlements throughout the world. It's incredible for other animals - if those animals can know the concept.

  人类在不改变自身身体条件的情况下就做到了过去几十亿年生物进化史都无法跨越的鸿沟,就像我之前说的,碱性水域的生物无法适应酸性水域,酸性水域的生物无法在空气中生存。但是人类却可以横跨寒、温、热三大地理带,并且在所有适宜生存的地方都建立了定居点,同时并不改变自身的生物条件。

Without altering their physical conditions, humans have managed to bridge a gap that has eluded them for billions of years of evolutionary history. As I said before, organisms in alkaline waters cannot adapt to acid waters, and organisms in acid waters cannot survive in the air. But humans can cross the cold, warm, and hot zones, and have established settlements wherever they can live, without altering their living conditions.

  在大多数动物都依靠言传身教和残酷的自然淘汰来实现种群的传递和繁衍的时候,人类已经可以用寓言的形式教导下一代如何生存,如何使用工具,以及如何与环境相处。

At a time when most animals rely on words and deeds and cruel natural elimination to achieve population transmission and reproduction, humans can already use fables to teach the next generation how to survive, how to use tools, and how to get along with the environment.

  但这需要的不仅仅是聪慧的大脑,更需要对于一切抽象事物的想象力和总结能力,将什么是什么最终凝结成一个符号,或者一种音节。

But it takes not just the intelligent brain, but the imagination and the ability to summarize everything in the abstract, to end up condensing what is what into a symbol, or a syllable.

  当我们指着山的时候,我们会发出“shan”这个音节来代表其指代物的名称,而其他人也能很快明白你的发音指代的究竟是什么,但动物只能通过气味或者其他物理的东西来搞清楚眼前的环境。而我们在说山的时候,也意味着我们包含了所有同类型的事物,而不是仅仅指代了眼前这一样事物,但动物就完全无法将多件同样的实物归纳在一起,或者将其中一件事物单独抽取出来作为表示。

When we point to a mountain, we pronounce the \"shan\" syllable to represent the name of the reference, and others can quickly understand what your pronunciation refers to, but animals can only understand the immediate environment by smell or other physical things. When we speak of mountains, we also mean that we contain all things of the same type, rather than simply referring to the present, but animals are completely unable to group together multiple objects of the same kind, or extract one of them separately as a representation.

  这种高度概括的抽象化经验,使得经验的传播可以跨越血脉或者说基因的传承,让更多的种群个体更快速的承载这些经验,并且在这个基础上进一步迭代和发展。人类这一种群就是在这样的高效的经验传承的基础上,实现了自我迭代自我升级,并逐步发展出自己的社会形式。

This highly generalized abstract experience enables the spread of experience across the blood or gene, allowing more individuals to carry these experiences more quickly, and on this basis to further iterate and develop. It is on the basis of such efficient experience that the human population realizes self-iteration and self-promotion, and gradually develops its own social form.

  这种迭代升级并非是自身身体的进化,而是加快信息传播的速度和生产资源的效率。或者说,是通过发展生产效率来提升信息传播的效率。为了更高效的传递信息,我们发明了书写工具、书写载体,然后是印刷术,再然后是电磁波和互联网,当下我们则正在进行量子通讯的通用化。

This kind of iterative upgrade is not the evolution of its own body, but the speed of information dissemination and the efficiency of production resources. In other words, it is through the development of production efficiency to improve the efficiency of information dissemination. To deliver information more efficiently, we have invented writing tools, writing carriers, and then printing, and then electromagnetic waves and the Internet, and now we're making quantum communications universal.

  这些都是在不断加快信息传递本身,增加人们之间的链接性,不仅仅是个体与个体之间的,同时也是群体之间的。传播媒介的改变,使得人们获取知识的方式和途径都发生了根本性的改变。

These are constantly accelerating the information transfer itself, increasing the connectivity between people, not only between individuals, but also between groups. The change of the media has made fundamental changes in the way and way people acquire knowledge.

  在当下中国老一辈和新一辈之前的感受最为明显,老一辈觉得十几岁的孩子似乎在他们的观念当中啥都不懂,但是整天抱着手机平板的少年们其实已经比老一辈们所认为的知道的多得多。这也意味着成长在互联网时代的新一代们更多的将自己链接到了全球信息共享的平台当中,或有意或无意的创造和分享着信息。

The older generation of china's most obvious feeling before the new generation, the older generation felt that the teens seemed to understand nothing in their ideas, but the young people holding the tablet all day long knew much more than the older generation thought. It also means that a new generation growing up in the internet age has linked itself more to platforms for global information sharing, or creating and sharing information intentionally or unintentionally.

  当在谈论一个时下热点时,网上的观点不再只局限于某个评论家或某位专家,而更多的聚焦于网络群体的发声。这个群体代表了一种共同的声音或者共同的认识。这也意味着这些群体所包含的个体全都被抽象化为一个高度凝练的信息符号,是这个符号化社会的缩影。

When it comes to talking about a current hot spot, online views are no longer confined to a critic or expert, but are more focused on the vocalization of online groups. This group represents a common voice or common understanding. It also means that all the individuals contained in these groups are abstracted into a highly condensed information symbol, which is the epitome of this symbolic society.

  越是城市化进程高的地方,这种现象越明显,回想一下,作为社会分工高度细化的一员中的你,有多长时间没有自己去总结规律或者经验了?你所处的钢铁丛林之中,还有哪个地方是自然造就的景象吗?我们用规划将自然混沌的状态一点点整理成我们需要的样子,符合几何学的城市建筑群,方便快捷的道路网络,每一个街道都有自己的名称和号牌,这些符号化的事物已经成为了我们生活的一部分。你甚至不需要通过太阳的方向来判断自己究竟在哪,你也不需要通过看太阳的高度就能知道现在是什么时候,甚至你回想一下自己从什么时候开始就不再关注天空了。

  在当下,每天人们都忙于进行网络社交,帮人砍价、给人投票,甚至情侣、父母坐在一起都毫无聊天的欲望,因为每个人都在网上消耗着自己的社交值。在现实世界中大家就都变得沉默寡言了,这其实是一种虚假的链接。

In the present day, people are busy socializing online, helping people bargain, giving people votes, even couples, parents sitting together without the desire to chat, because everyone is consuming their own social value online. In the real world everyone becomes silent, which is a false link.

  小岛秀夫就将这种状态进行了极端化的表现,物理上将个体之间的距离无限放大,在《死亡搁浅》的世界之中,个体与个体相隔有多远?其实直线距离上不算特别远,但是在现实相见却困难重重。我个人感觉就像当代社会中的职场人士,哪怕和你在同一个办公室的人,相互之间也很少会有交流,更多的交流或许只是在网络上通过工作群或者办公软件进行的。两个人隔着一个隔板,就如同游戏中山姆翻山越岭的距离,中间相隔着一道时间雨幕,出一趟门也许就天人永隔。而工位对面的那个他,也许在某件事后,就悄然离职,消失在你的时间雨中。

This state is extremely manifested by shima soufu, physically enlarging the distance between individuals. How far is the distance between individuals and individuals in the world of \"death stranding \"? In fact, the straight line is not particularly far away, but in reality it is difficult to meet. I personally feel like people in contemporary society, even those who are in the same office with you, rarely communicate with each other, and more communication may only be done on the network through work groups or office software. Two people across a partition, like the game Sun Yat-sen over the mountains, the distance between a time between the rain curtain, out of a door may be forever separated. And the other side of the station he, perhaps after something, quietly quit, disappearing into the rain of your time.

  在游戏中,山姆作为快递员,通过一次次的传递,将人与人之间的联系重新建立起来。因为这难以跨越的距离,山姆将人们的情感寄托以货物的形式传递下去,每一件货物都是被需要着的,而并不仅仅只是一件商品。就像人们总是在感慨书信能够传递人们的心情,但是网络社交让书信的往来成为历史。

In the game, Sam as a courier, through the delivery of time and again, the relationship between people to re-establish. Because of this difficult distance, Sam put people's feelings in the form of goods to pass down, each cargo is needed, and not just a commodity. Just as people are always feeling that letters can convey people's feelings, but online socializing makes the exchange of letters history.

  许多人在想为什么网络将人们链接得越紧密,却使得人际关系越发冷漠。原因就在于,这种近乎无时不刻的链接,使得人们之间的关系没有了回旋的余地,失去了自己情感的自留地。没有沉淀与思考,只剩下了瞬时的冲动,使得情感的付出得不到真正的回报。

Many are wondering why the web links people more closely, but makes relationships more impersonal. The reason is that this almost untimely link, so that the relationship between people have no room for manoeuvre, lost their own emotional retention. No precipitation and thinking, only the instantaneous impulse, so that the emotional pay cannot get a real return.

  当我沉思许久的话语,在qq群中轻描淡写地被更劲爆的娱乐消息给掩盖,当我的观点消失在喷子与键盘侠的骂战之中,我还有什么理由和动力去付出情感来让其他人听我所想说的呢?真实的链接或许并不那么复杂。

What reason and motivation do I have to give to others to listen to what I want to say when my long-rumoured words are overshadowed by the more intense entertainment news in the qqgroup and when my point of view is lost in the scolding of the keyboard man? Real links may not be that complicated.

  在高度符号化的社会,我们很容易为那些群体去构建符号化的标签。比如程序员都是秃头油腻的中年格子衫大叔,女明星就一定是依靠潜规则上位的,大款就一定是巴结权贵才获得的财富,屌丝就一定是没有任何生活能力的失败者。这些群体被符号化以后,人与人之间甚至都失去了相互连接的兴趣,一切都是在用你认为的高度凝练的符号化的信息来进行总结。

In highly symbolic societies, it is easy to construct symbolic labels for those groups. For example, programmers are bald and greasy middle-aged plaid uncle, female stars must rely on the hidden rules of the upper, the big money must be to the rich and powerful to gain wealth, losers must be no ability to live the failure. When these groups are symbolized, there is even no interest in being connected, and everything is summed up with what you see as highly condensed symbolic information.

  这种符号化,使得群体与群体之间相互开始割裂开来,虚假的将人群通过标签来进行链接,而忽略了人与人之间真正的链接。

This kind of symbolization makes the group and the group begin to separate each other, falsely link the crowd through the label, but ignore the real link between people.

  回想并不久远的过去,父母那一代人,是如何与人进行联系的?是通过网络吗?不是,是通过面对面的交流,因为你帮我,所以我才会帮你,因为你的善意,所以我才会对你善意。而不是因为什么共同的爱好或者共同的话题。工人和知识分子可以是朋友,教师和学生之间可以是朋友,农民和村干部之间可以是朋友,这个人类所构建的符号化的社会中,除了信息的链接,人与人之间情感的链接才是让社会紧密团结共同发展的链接。

In retrospect and not long ago, how did the generation of parents connect with people? Is it over the Internet? No, it's through face-to-face communication, because you help me, so I will help you, because of your kindness, so I will be kind to you. Not because of a common hobby or common topic. Workers and intellectuals can be friends, teachers and students can be friends, and farmers and village cadres can be friends. In the symbolic society constructed by human beings, besides the link of information, the link of emotion between people is the link that makes society closely unite and develop together.

  这种人与人最本质的链接最高级的形式就是基因血脉上的链接。当山姆得知了自己的来历,看到了作为父亲的克利福德·昂格尔为了保护自己而死亡的画面,他明白了自己的使命也明白了自己的血脉。那是作为他父亲意志的传承,在那一刻,玩家感受到了这跨越时空的链接。

The most essential link between humans and humans in the most advanced form is the link on the genetic lineage. When Sam learned of his origins and saw the death of Clifford Angle as his father, he understood his mission and his bloodline. It was the inheritance of his father's will, and at that moment the player felt the link across time and space.

  人最真挚的最毫无保留情感的就是父母对于子女的爱,这种情感链接了上一代与下一代,链接了过去的时光与未来的时光,使得时间与空间变得有意义了,因为你知道,你的后代会继续下去,直到永远。

The most sincere and unreserved emotion of man is the love of his parents for his children, which links the previous generation with the next, the time of the past with the time of the future, and makes time and space meaningful, because you know that your offspring will continue forever.

中国游戏排行榜(ChinaGameWeightRank)是由新浪游戏推出的国内最全面、最专业、最公正、最客观的多平台游戏评测排行榜,包含了目前市场上所有的手游、端游、主机游戏、VR游戏、智能电视游戏及H5游戏,力图为中国玩家打造最值得信赖的游戏推荐平台。

China Game WeightRank is the most comprehensive, professional, fair and objective multi-platform game review list launched by Sina, which includes all the mobile games, end games, host games, VR games, smart TV games and H5 games on the market.